August 2, 2023

**Summary**: in this tutorial, you will learn about the PostgreSQL interval data type and how to manipulate interval values.

## Introduction to PostgreSQL interval data type

The interval data type allows you to store and manipulate a period of time in years, months, days, hours, minutes, seconds, etc. The following illustrates the interval type:

```
@ interval [ fields ] [ (p) ]
```

An interval value requires 16 bytes storage size that can store a period with the allowed range from `-178,000,000`

years to `178,000,000`

years.

In addition, an interval value can have an optional precision value p with the permitted range is from 0 to 6. The precision`p`

is the number of fraction digits retained in the second field.

The at sign ( `@`

) is optional therefore you can omit it.

The following examples show some interval values:

```
interval '2 months ago';
interval '3 hours 20 minutes';
```

Internally, PostgreSQL stores interval values as months, days, and seconds. The months and days values are integers while the seconds field can have fractions.

The interval values are very useful when doing date or time arithmetic. For example, if you want to know the time of 3 hours 2 minutes ago at the current time of last year, you can use the following statement:

```
SELECT
now(),
now() - INTERVAL '1 year 3 hours 20 minutes'
AS "3 hours 20 minutes ago of last year";
```

Let’s see how to format interval values for input and output.

## PostgreSQL interval input format

PostgreSQL provides you with the following verbose syntax to write the interval values:

```
quantity unit [quantity unit...] [direction]
```

`quantity`

is a number, sign`+`

or`-`

is also accepted`unit`

can be any of millennium, century, decade, year, month, week, day, hour, minute, second, millisecond, microsecond, or abbreviation (y, m, d, etc.,) or plural forms (months, days, etc.).`direction`

can be`ago`

or empty string`''`

This format is called `postgres_verbose`

which is also used for the interval output format. The following examples illustrate some interval values that use the verbose syntax:

```
INTERVAL '1 year 2 months 3 days';
INTERVAL '2 weeks ago';
```

### ISO 8601 interval format

In addition to the verbose syntax above, PostgreSQL allows you to write the interval values using `ISO 8601`

time intervals in two ways: format with designators and alternative format.

The `ISO 8601`

format with designators is like this:

```
P quantity unit [ quantity unit ...] [ T [ quantity unit ...]]
```

In this format, the interval value must start with the letter `P`

. The letter `T`

is for determining time-of-day unit.

The following table illustrates the `ISO 8601`

interval unit abbreviations:

Abbreviation | Description |
---|---|

Y | Years |

M | Months (in the date part) |

W | Weeks |

D | Days |

H | Hours |

M | Minutes (in the time part) |

S | Seconds |

Note that `M`

can be months or minutes depending on whether it appears before or after the letter `T`

.

For example, the interval of 6 years 5 months 4 days 3 hours 2 minutes 1 second can be written in the ISO 8601 designators format as follows:

```
P6Y5M4DT3H2M1S
```

The alternative form of `ISO 8601`

is:

```
P [ years-months-days ] [ T hours:minutes:seconds ]
```

It also must start with the letter `P`

, and the letter `T`

separates the date and time parts of the interval value. For example, the interval of `6 years 5 months 4 days 3 hours 2 minutes 1 second`

can be written in the `ISO 8601`

alternative form as:

```
P0006-05-04T03:02:01
```

## PostgreSQL interval output format

The output style of interval values is set by using the `SET intervalstyle`

command, for example:

```
SET intervalstyle = 'sql_standard';
```

PostgreSQL provides four output formats: `sql standard`

, `postgres`

, `postgresverbose`

, and `iso_8601`

. PostgresQL uses the `postgres`

style by default for formatting the interval values.

The following represents the interval of `6 years 5 months 4 days 3 hours 2 minutes 1 second`

in the four styles:

```
SET intervalstyle = 'sql_standard';
SELECT
INTERVAL '6 years 5 months 4 days 3 hours 2 minutes 1 second';
SET intervalstyle = 'postgres';
SELECT
INTERVAL '6 years 5 months 4 days 3 hours 2 minutes 1 second';
SET intervalstyle = 'postgres_verbose';
SELECT
INTERVAL '6 years 5 months 4 days 3 hours 2 minutes 1 second';
SET intervalstyle = 'iso_8601';
SELECT
INTERVAL '6 years 5 months 4 days 3 hours 2 minutes 1 second';
```

sql standard | postgres | postgres verbose | iso_8601 |
---|---|---|---|

`+6-5 +4 +3:02:01` |
`6 years 5 mons 4 days 03:02:01` |
`@ 6 years 5 mons 4 days 3 hours 2 mins 1 sec` |
`P6Y5M4DT3H2M1S` |

## PostgreSQL interval related operators and functions

### Interval operators

You can apply the arithmetic operator ( `+`

, `-`

, `*`

, etc.,) to the interval values, for examples:

```
SELECT
INTERVAL '2h 50m' + INTERVAL '10m'; -- 03:00:00
SELECT
INTERVAL '2h 50m' - INTERVAL '50m'; -- 02:00:00
SELECT
600 * INTERVAL '1 minute'; -- 10:00:00
```

### Converting PostgreSQL interval to string

To convert an interval value to string, you use the `TO_CHAR()`

function.

```
TO_CHAR(interval,format)
```

The `TO_CHAR()`

function takes the first argument as an interval value, the second one as the format, and returns a string that represents the interval in the specified format.

See the following example:

```
SELECT
TO_CHAR(
INTERVAL '17h 20m 05s',
'HH24:MI:SS'
);
```

It returned the following output:

```
to_char
----------
17:20:05
(1 row)
```

### Extracting data from a PostgreSQL interval

To extract field such as year, month, date, etc., from an interval, you use the `EXTRACT()`

function.

```
EXTRACT(field FROM interval)
```

The field can be the year, month, date, hour, minutes, etc., that you want to extract from the interval. The extract function returns a value of type double precision.

See the following example:

```
SELECT
EXTRACT (
MINUTE
FROM
INTERVAL '5 hours 21 minutes'
);
```

In this example, we extracted the minute from the interval of `5 hours 21 minutes`

and it returned `21`

as expected:

```
date_part
-----------
21
(1 row)
```

### Adjusting interval values

PostgreSQL provides two functions `justifydays `

*and* `justifyhours `

that allows you to adjust the interval of 30-day as one month and the interval of 24-hour as one day:

```
SELECT
justify_days(INTERVAL '30 days'),
justify_hours(INTERVAL '24 hours');
```

```
justify_days | justify_hours
--------------+---------------
1 mon | 1 day
(1 row)
```

In addition, the `justify_interval`

function adjusts interval using `justifydays`

and `justifyhours `

with additional sign adjustments:

```
SELECT
justify_interval(interval '1 year -1 hour');
```

```
justify_interval
--------------------------
11 mons 29 days 23:00:00
(1 row)
```

In this tutorial, you have learned about the PostgreSQL interval data type and how to manipulate interval values.